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Radiation Protection
Training Manual &
Study Guide

 

 

 

 

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December 1986
Revised 1994

 

 

 

 


Radiation Safety Office
Radiation Protection Training Course
Course Outline

 

 

TimeLecture TopicReference Material

20 MinIntroductionRadiation Safety Manual and DES RSO Procedures
1 HourFundamental Radiation Concepts

  • The Radioactive Atom
  • Radioactive Decay Modes
  • Radioactive Decay Equation
  • Radioactive Units
  • Interactions of Radiation with Matter

Demonstration:
  • Inverse Square Law, Penetrability of Radiation
Study Guide
Chapter I
Problem Set 1
1 HourRadiation Instrumentation

  • Portable Survey Instruments
  • Use of Radiation Survey Instruments
  • Calibrations and Efficiency
  • Liquid Scintillation Counting
  • Statistics of Counting

Demonstration:
  • GM, Ion Chamber, Alpha Proportional Survey Instruments
Study Guide
Chapter 2
Problem Set2
1 HourSource and Effects of Radiation
  • Biological Effects of Radiation
  • Radiation Exposure Limits
  • Radiation from Background, Medical and Consumer Products

Demonstration:
  • Radioactive Material in Consumer Products
Study Guide
Chapter 3
Problem Set 3
3 Hours Radiation Protection and Laboratory Techniques
  • External Radiation Protection
  • Internal Radiation Protection
  • Protective Clothing
  • Workplace
  • Manipulations of Radioactive Materials
  • Emergency Procedures
  • Radioactive Waste Disposal
  • Contamination Surveys
  • Radioactive Contamination Limits
  • Decontamination Procedures

Video Tape:
  • Laboratory Techniques and Emergency Procedures
Study Guide
Chapter 4
Problem Set 4
2 Hours Radiation Protection Program
  • Rules and Regulations
  • Applicable UMD Directives
  • Course Review
  • Course Evaluation
  • Examination

Video Tape:
  • Radiation Safety
Study Guide
Chapter 5


Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter I
Fundamental Radiation Concepts

  1. The Radioactive Atom
  2. Radioactive Decay Modes
    1. Beta Decay
    2. Positron Decay
    3. Electron Capture
    4. Alpha Decay
    5. Nuclear Transition
  3. The Radioactive Decay Equation
  4. Radioactivity Units
  5. Interactions of Radiations with Matter
    1. Interactions of Charged Particles
      1. Alpha Particles
      2. Beta Particles
    2. Interactions of X-Rays and Gamma Rays
      1. The Photoelectric Effect
      2. The Compton Effect
      3. Pair Production
  6. Radiation Units
Problem Set 1


Chapter II
Radiation Instrumentation

  1. Portable Survey Instruments
    1. Ionization Chambers
    2. Geiger-Muller Counters
  2. Use of Radiation Survey Instruments
  3. Calibrations and Efficiency
  4. Counting Statistics
    1. Percentage Error
    2. Minimum Detectable Activity
  5. Liquid Scintillation Counting
    1. Optimum Counting Conditions
    2. Counting Efficiency and Quenching
      1. Internal Standard
      2. Sample Channels Ratio
      3. External Standard
    3. Sample Preparation
    4. Cerenkov Counting
    5. General Counting Techniques
  6. Gamma Counting
Problem Set 2


Chapter III
Sources and Effects of Radiation

  1. Biological Effects of Radiation
    1. Radiosensitivity of Cells
    2. Acute Lethal Response
    3. Chronic Exposure Response
    4. Late Effects of Radiation
    5. Comparison of Health Effects
  2. Radiation Exposure Limits
    1. Historical Review
    2. Basis for the Current Radiation Exposure Limits
    3. External Exposure
    4. Other Exposure Limits
  3. Radiation from Background, Consumer Products, and Natural Exposure
    1. Naturally Occurring Radiation
      1. Cosmic Radiation
      2. Terrestrial Radiation
      3. Internal Radiation
      4. Summary
    2. Technologically Enhanced Exposure to Natural Radiation
    3. Consumer Products
      1. Radioluminous Products
      2. Electronic and Electrical Equipment
      3. Miscellaneous
    4. Medical Exposures
    5. Summary

Problem Set 3


Chapter IV
Radiation Protection and Laboratory Techniques

  1. External Radiation Protection
    1. Time
    2. Distance
      1. The Inverse Square Law
      2. Gamma Constants
      3. Gamma Exposure Rate Formula
    3. Shielding
      1. Alpha and Beta Radiation
      2. X and Gamma Radiation
      3. Half Value Layer
    4. Personnel Monitoring
      1. Pocket Dosimeters
      2. Film Badges
      3. Thermoluminescent Dosimeters
      4. Proper Use of Personnel Dosimeters
    5. Posting and Labeling of Radioactive Materials
      1. Cautionary Signs
      2. Department of Transportation Warning Labels
  2. Internal Radiation Protection
    1. Methods of Entry
    2. Guidelines
    3. Internal Exposure Limits
    4. Units of Radiation Dose
    5. Units of Radioactivity
    6. Internal Exposure Monitoring
  3. Radioisotope Laboratory Techniques
    1. Protective Clothing
    2. The Workplace
    3. Manipulations of Radioactive Materials
    4. Radioactive Material Spills
      1. Major Spills
      2. Minor Spills
    5. Radioactive Waste Disposal
    6. Radioactive Contamination Survey Procedures
      1. Survey for Removable Contamination
      2. Survey for Fixed Contamination
    7. Radioactive Contamination Limits
    8. Control Measures for Radioactive Contamination
      1. Personnel Contamination
      2. Equipment or Area Contamination
    9. Radiation Survey Procedures
    10. Radiation Limits
    11. Control Measures for Radiation Levels
Problem Set 4


Chapter V
Radiation Protection Programs

  1. General
  2. UMD Radiation Protection Program
    1. Regulatory Agencies
    2. Radiation Protection Services

Bibliography

Appendix . Chart of the Nuclides

Appendix II Solutions to Problem Sets

Appendix III Penetration Ability of Beta Radiation

Appendix IV Rules of Thumb and Useful Equations

Appendix V Reference Data for Selected Radioisotopes

Introduction

This Training Manual and Study Guide serves as the main text for the UMD Radiation Safety Office Training Course entitled "Basic Radiation Safety". Each of the five chapters correspond to the lecture topics presented during an eight hour course. This course is offered periodically in conformance with State regulations requiring that individuals working with radioactive materials and radiation producing equipment be adequately trained. The practical problem sets at the end of each chapter and their detailed solutions also make the Guide useful for self-study in the event that participation in the formal course is not possible. The concepts and ideas presented in the text require a fundamental understanding of biology, physics and mathematics. While the material is presented in its most basic form, undoubtedly some ambiguities will remain. A bibliography is provided for the interested student to further his or her knowledge in this area. The Radiation Safety Office is available to answer any question or aid any user in the radiation science field. We welcome all inquiry and would appreciate comments and suggestions on how to improve this Study Guide, Training Course or our Radiation Safety Program.

Radiation Safety Office

The Radiation Protection Training Course has been established to satisfy the training requirements for University of Maryland personnel who use or are subjected to radioactive materials. The course will be presented periodically. Personnel who are unable to attend the formal lecture presentation may pursue a course of study on their own by using the Radiation Protection Training Manual and Study Guide for study and completing the Problem Sets which are included. Upon completion of the study course or lecture, an examination will be given to authenticate completion of the program requirements. Receipt of the completed examination by the Radiation Safety Officer will be the only acceptable course completion documentation. A Certificate of Achievement will be presented to those who have successfully completed the course and a permanent record of training completion will be on file in the Radiation Safety Office.

Radiation Protection Training Course Lesson Plan Outline

Instructional Subject: Fundamental Radiation Concepts
  • The Radioactive Atom
  • Radioactive Decay Modes
  • Radioactive Decay Equation
  • Radioactive Units
  • Interactions of Radiation with Matter
Instructor: To be determined
Instructional Goal: To provide the participant with a basic knowledge of radiation concepts.
Instructional Objectives: The participant should be able to accomplish the following:
  • Recognize the differences of radioactive materials
  • Know where to go for information on decay modes
  • Be able to use decay equation to determine activity of isotopes
  • Be able to identify and use radioactive units
  • Know how interactions occur
Training Support Material: Handouts
Study Guide
Video Tapes: None
Slides: As determined by the instructor
Equipment Required:As determined by the instructor
Reference Material: Radiation Protection Training Manual and Study Guide - Chapter 1, Problem Set 1

Radiation Protection Training Course
Lesson Plan Outline

Instructional Subject:Radiation Instrumentation
  • Portable Survey Instruments
  • Use of Radiation Survey Instruments
  • Calibrations and Efficiency
  • Liquid Scintillation Counting
  • Statistics of Counting
Instructor:To be determined
Instructional Goal:To provide the participant with a basic knowledge of instruments available and how they are used
Instructional Objectives:Upon completion of this instructional period, the accomplish the following:
  • Identify the different types of instruments and detectors
  • Be able to perform surveys with the appropriate instrument
  • Understand how instruments are
  • Have a basic understanding of statistics
Training Support Material:Handouts
Study Guide
Video Tapes:None
Slides:As determined by the instructor
Equipment Required:As determined by the instructor
Reference Material:Radiation Protection Training Manual and Study Guide - Chapter 2, Problem Set 2

Radiation Protection Training Course
Lesson Plan Outline

Instructional Subject:Sources and Effects of Radiation
  • Biological Effects of Radiation
  • Radiation Exposure Limit
  • Radiation from Background Medical and Consumer Products
Instructor:To be determined
Instructional Goal:To provide the participant with information concerning the effects and limits of radiation exposure
Instructional Objectives:Upon completion of this instructional period, the participant should be familiar with the effects and limits allowed for radiation exposure in the use of radioisotopes and/or equipment and:
  • Be familiar with methods of protection
Training Support Material:Handouts
Study Guide
Video Tapes:None
Slides:As determined by the instructor
Equipment Required:As determined by the instructor
Reference Material:Radiation Protection Training Manual and Study Guide - Chapter 3, Problem Set 3

Radiation Protection Training Course
Lesson Plan Outline

Instructional Subject:Radiation Protection and Laboratory Techniques
  • Internal and External Radiation Protection
  • Work place and Protective Clothing
  • Manipulations of Radioactive Materials
  • Radioactive Waste Disposal
  • Surveys, Limits, and Decon Procedures
Instructor:To be determined
Instructional Goal:To provide the participant with a basic knowledge of the work environment, methods of protection, equipment, and procedures for decontamination
Instructional Objectives:Upon completion of this instructional period, the participant should be able to accomplish the following:
  • Recognize internal and external radiation protection methods
  • Identify proper protective equipment to be used
  • Know how to segregate radioactive waste material
  • Be able to perform proper surveys, know limits, and use decontamination procedures
Training Support Material:Handouts
Study Guide
Video Tapes:As determined by instructor
Slides:As determined by the instructor
Equipment Required:As determined by the instructor
Reference Material:Radiation Protection Training Manual and Study Guide - Chapter 4 Problem Set 4

Radiation Protection Training Course
Lesson Plan Outline

Instructional Subject:Radiation Protection Program
  • Rules and Regulations
  • Course Review
  • Course Evaluation
  • Examination
Instructor:To be determined
Instructional Goal:To provide information to the participant on requirements of a radiation protection program; Review all material covered and provide RSO with an evaluation of the course
Instructional Objectives:Upon completion of this instructional period, the participant should be able to accomplish the following:
  • Be knowledgeable of the rules and regulations and the requirements to have a radiation training program
  • Be able to demonstrate acceptable knowledge of the information presented to easily pass the test for the course
Training Support Material:Handouts
Study Guide
Video Tapes:As determined by instructor
Slides:As determined by the instructor
Equipment Required:As determined by the instructor
Reference Material:Radiation Protection Training Manual and Study Guide - Chapter 5
Contact us with comments, questions and feedback
Phone 301.405.3960